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&Nbsp;   in classical political economy, Adam Smith and David Ricardo as an advocate of free trade and free competition, and its liberal view is based on the following assumptions: the personal is the political economics analysis of the basic characters and units; individuals are rational individuals is through the commodities exchange to maximize its effectiveness to meet. Concluded that the Government's role in the economy is relatively limited, any form of government intervention to limit the market power to hinder trade. Of course, Liberals also admitted some "public goods" should be provided by the Government and not by the market, believe in free competition, the Government has played an indispensable role. Extended to the field of international economic liberals highlights not only the importance of coordination within and between national interests. A powerful historical example is 19th century United Kingdom free trade a great victory for the repeal of the corn laws, not only for the United Kingdom and other countries interests. Free trade will promote the national welfare levels, thus also making national conflicts and lack of economic war.
&Nbsp;   originated in the 1930 of the 20th century by the international realism, partly explains the major industrialized countries during the great depression, "beggar-thy-neighbour" trade policy and welfare reasons. Realists believe that national is the main role of international political economy and unit of analysis; reason countries seek to maximize his power, each country has its national interests, while the national Government is a guarantee of that interest. Different from the economic, politics is a zero-sum game; countries through the cost-benefit analysis, to maximize choice. Liberals believe that economics and politics are largely belongs to the fragmented field, the realist view, international economics, international politics are based. They stressed that relations between the country's political and economic interests. View of a country's trade policy alone is a reflection of a country's foreign policy, trade policy development aimed at enhancing the competitiveness of national interests. In addition, the externalities of realists also argues that trade, that security has an important impact on a country's trade policy.
&Nbsp;   the international trade policy economic analysis, is the most representative of Kindleberger's "hegemonic stability theory". This theory holds that a country's position in the international political economy determines its foreign economic policy. When the international system with superior military power, political power and economic strength of a prominent State when the so-called hegemony country appears, it must request and trying to establish an open international trading system, through coercive measures such as sanctions, revenge and to implement the rules. Hegemonic countries free trade as a public good, and has stable and maintain the capacity of the international system. Hegemonic stability theory from the United Kingdom during the mid-19th century to the early 20th century, a trade policy evolution was inspired, designed to explain the relative international status change during the evolution of the international economic system. Kindleberger even argue that the great depression in the 1930 of the 20th century, in part, is the United Kingdom as a hegemonic role baton has not been fully established hegemony of the United States, unhappy landing results. Take this theory to examine trade policy after the second world war, found that United States hegemony during the build up the free trade system and to maintain once its supremacy decline, then gradually back from the free trade positions, to new protectionism.
&Nbsp;   the international political economy of trade policy from the point of view of international relations to explain changes in trade policies, believe that international trade is a form of relations between countries and the way States interaction determines the choice of trade policy. While operating under national States in the choice of trade policy, but often in a dilemma of free trade and trade protection, and often implement protectionist impulses, the results tend to deviate from the principle of efficiency. Therefore, in the practice of trade policy, helainier and other international negotiations since the model explained in the 1930 of the 20th century, especially the decreasing trend in tariffs after World War II. Through two or more country negotiations reached agreement to than single aspects implementation tax cuts policy easy, unilateral implementation tariff reduction let will caused domestic more strongly of against, and bilateral or multilateral agreement can get those for tariff reduction let and thanks of sector, and group and class of support; and Government Zhijian reached agreement zhihou, their are bear has corresponding of international obligations, helps avoid trade war of occurred. In fact, today's international trading system is holding a series of bilateral or multilateral agreements on international trade. Through a series of international negotiations, trade liberalization has made great progress after World War II, Governments agreed to jointly implement tariff reduction. The agreement put the reduction in import-competing industries protection of foreign imports and reduced exports to those countries linked to the protection.